CONTACT DATA:

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Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins
DoB: 26-Jan-1946
Chepstow, NP16 7LR, Monmouthshire, United Kingdoms.
tel: 01594 - 528 337
on: http://GregLanceWatkins.Blogspot.com

All ideas and info. provided here are to be discussed with your medical professionals. I am NOT Medically trained. I have merely had this vile disease since 1998 - always use your Common Sense and seek expert medical advice.
YOU MAY FIND THE LINKS in text and in the Right Sidebar of Help.
I can NOT vouch for any external site that I may direct readers to & therefore can NOT accept any legal responsibility - this is a personal blog of that which I believe only.
I do NOT believe there are magical cures hidden from us by our medical professionals though there are without doubt cases that seem cured as if by magic. Medical knowledge of this disease is very rudimentary and research frequently profligate but pointless!
However - sticking goji berries in your ear on a moonless night or similar WILL NOT HELP - Nor will the price paid for quackery be it here OR Mexico, Brazil or China!
There are many health care professionals trying their very best with great care and compassion but perfection is a little way off!
Be Minded:
I have cancer - cancer does not have me!

"Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once.
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, it seems to me most strange that men should fear;
Seeing that death, a necessary end, will come when it will come". - (Julius Caesar - Act II, Scene II).

Wednesday, 19 December 2012

The Story of Mets! How Does Kidney Cancer Spread?

The Story of Mets! How Does Kidney Cancer Spread? 
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To Give Hope & Information
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New Findings Clarify How Kidney Cancer Spreads to Distant Organs


By Eva Kiesler, PhD, Science Writer/Editor  |  Wednesday, December 19, 2012
Pictured: X-ray Image 
This X-ray image shows metastatic bone tumors in a mouse with kidney cancer. The metastatic tumors appear as hollow or dark areas in the bones.
Metastasis, the process by which some tumors spread from their site of origin to other body parts, accounts for more than nine out of ten cancer-related deaths. But scientists still know relatively little about the genes and biological processes that cause metastasis to occur — information that potentially could translate into new ways to stop cancers from reaching advanced or terminal stages.
Now a Memorial Sloan-Kettering research team has shed light on the mechanisms by which kidney cancer metastasizes to distant organs, including the lungs, bone, and brain. Published in the journal Nature Medicine in December, the findings point to potential therapeutic strategies to control the spread of the disease. The study also offers scientific insights that could advance metastasis research in other cancer types.

Focusing on Kidney Cancer

The research was led by cancer biologist Joan Massagu√©, Chair of the Sloan-Kettering Institute’s Cancer Biology and Genetics Program and Director of the Metastasis Research Center. In recent years, his laboratory has uncovered basic causes of metastasis in a number of cancer types, including breast and lung cancers.
“In this study, we focused on clear cell renal cell carcinoma, the most common subtype of kidney cancer, for which there is an urgent need for more-effective therapies,” says postdoctoral fellow Sakari Vanharanta, the first author of the Nature Medicine report. “The metastatic form of this disease is almost always incurable.”
In the vast majority of patients, clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) tumors carry DNA changes in a gene called VHL. These mutations have been shown to cause the formation of primary kidney tumors, but they do not necessarily lead to metastasis. Until recently, researchers did not know what makes some renal cell carcinoma cells capable of forming secondary tumors in distant organs.

New Potential Drug Targets

In the recent study, the team addressed this question by performing experiments in mouse models and cell lines, and by analyzing biological and clinical data from more than 700 patients with ccRCC, whose tumors had been analyzed in large-scale cancer genomics projects.
They discovered that two genes called CYTIP and CXCR4 are activated in metastatic tumor cells but inactive in non-metastatic cells. Their experiments suggest that the activation of the two genes might be essential for the spread of kidney cancer.
CXCR4 has been linked to metastasis before in this and other tumor types, including breast cancer,” Dr. Vanharanta says. “Now, our study shows that blocking CXCR4 function with a drug called plerixafor can reduce kidney cancer metastasis in mice.” Plerixafor (MozobilTM) is currently used to stimulate blood stem cells in some cancer patients treated by bone marrow transplantation.
The researchers plan to investigate further whether CXCR4 and CYTIP, and other genes identified in the study, might offer new targets for the development of more-effective drugs for kidney cancer.

Exploring the Epigenetics of Metastasis

In addition, the investigators explored the mechanisms by which the CXCR4 and CYTIP genes are switched on in kidney cancer cells to incite metastasis. Their study revealed that the genes undergo a series of epigenetic changes — modifications in the proteins that package a cell’s DNA and regulate genes.
Unlike gene mutations, which alter a cell’s genetic code, epigenetic changes leave the DNA sequence unaffected. Nevertheless, such changes can influence a cell’s behavior by switching individual genes on or off.
Epigenetic modifications are commonly seen in many types of cancer and have recently been associated with more-advanced disease. However, little is known about the specific genes and mechanisms by which tumor cells may reconfigure their epigenetic makeup, causing a person’s disease to progress and establish itself in new organs.
“Our study has demonstrated with clear examples how epigenetic alterations can lead to the activation of metastasis-inducing genes,” Dr. Vanharanta notes. “This is a conceptual advancement that is likely to help us understand how metastasis occurs in kidney cancer as well as in other cancer types.”

To view the original of this article CLICK HERE 
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 Please Be Sure To
My Blogs
To Spread The Facts World Wide To Give Others HOPE
I Have Been Fighting Cancer since 1997 & I'M STILL HERE!
I Have Cancer, Cancer Does NOT Have Me
I just want to say sorry for copping out at times and leaving Lee and friends to cope!
Any help and support YOU can give her will be hugely welcome.
I do make a lousy patient!
. If YOU want to follow my fight against Cancer from when it started and I first presented with symptoms in 1998, see The TAB just below the Header of this Blog. called >DIARY of Cancer< just click and it will give you a long list of the main events in chronological order.
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 Thoughts and comments will be in chronological order in the main blog and can be tracked in the >ARCHIVE< in the Right Sidebar.

You may find the TABS >MEDICAL LINKS< and also >CANCER LINKS< of help.
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YOU are welcome to call me if you believe I can help in ANY way. .
Posted by: Greg Lance-Watkins
tel: 01594 - 528 337
on: http://GregLanceWatkins.Blogspot.com
TWITTER: Greg_LW
Health/Cancer Blog: http://GregLW.blogspot.com  

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